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Mind Matters
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CONTENTS

Acknowledgments

Contents

1    FUTURISTIC VISIONS: INTELLIGENT MACHINES IN FICTION

2    MEDIEVAL MIND

THE MIND'S VIRTUAL-REALITY SHOW
ARISTOTLE'S LEGACY
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

3    MECHANICAL MIND

THE RISE OF MATHEMATICS
FROM CLOCKS TO CALCULATORS
NUMBER FACTORIES
END OF A LINEAGE: THE GIANT CALCULATORS

4    LOGICAL MIND

SEARCHING FOR TRUTH
SYMBOLIZING LOGIC
MECHANIZING LOGIC

5    CYBERNETIC MIND

A CONTROL-THEORY VIEW OF MIND
THE BRAIN AS AN INFORMATION PROCESSOR

6    CALCULATOR TO COMPUTER

ALAN TURING'S UNIVERSAL MACHINE
SPECIAL-PURPOSE AND GENERAL-PURPOSE
THE MODERN COMPUTER EMERGES

7    COMPUTATIONAL MIND

THE FIRST-EVER VERSATILE MACHINE
TURING'S 1950 PAPER
A HUGE FINITE-STATE MACHINE
REPRESENTATIONS BEYOND NUMBERS

8    COMPUTER TO SYMBOL PROCESSOR

EARLY VISIONARIES AND THE FOUNDING OF AI
DEALING WITH EVERYDAY LIFE
THE FIRST AI PROGRAM
HUMAN PROBLEM-SOLVING
DARTMOUTH 1956: THE FOUNDING FATHERS

9    CHARTING NEW TERRITORY

THE COMPUTER AS PROBLEM SOLVER
IBM'S GEOMETRY THEOREM PROVER
TAMING BABEL
MIT'S AI GROUP AND PROJECT MAC
"INTELLIGENCE" AND SEARCH REDUCTION
THE VERY MODEL OF A PROBLEM-SOLVER GENERAL: GPS
AN EXAMPLE OF SUBGOALS--THE "15 PUZZLE"
SUCCESSORS TO GPS
GPS + IPS: THE "SOAR" LINEAGE

10    OCCAM'S CHAIN SAW: HACKING AWAY AT GAME TREES

LABORATORIES OF LIFE
EARLY GAME-PLAYING PROGRAMS
CHECKERS AND CHESS AT IBM
GAMES IN GENERAL
GAME TREES AND SEARCHING
LEARNING
WORLD-CHAMPION CLASS
RANDOM ELEMENT

11    TOP GUN: BLACK HAT AND WHITE HAT--THE CHESS FIGHTERS

THE EARLY PROGRAM DUELS
AUTOMATIC WEAPONS
THE AI EFFECT
TANK WARFARE
SO IS THIS INTELLIGENCE?

12    ADVENTURES IN TOYLAND: DISTILLATIONS OF REALITY

A WORLD OF KNOWLEDGE
COLLEGE COURSE OR TRADE APPRENTICESHIP?
PLAYPENS FOR PROGRAMS--The Blocks Microworlds Project
TODDLER TALK--Communicating with Micro Worlds

13    BOTTOM-UP AI

COMPUTER VISION AND ROBOTICS
NEURAL NETS AND PERCEPTRONS
VISION BASICS
DAVID MARR'S THEORY OF VISION
"OBJECT-CENTERED" VISION AT STANFORD
IF SEEING IS BELIEVING, DOING IS PROVING: MOBILITY & ROBOTICS
ROBOT ROAD VEHICLES
DOING AWAY WITH REPRESENTATION
SO WHAT HAPPENED TO INTELLIGENCE?

14    SEEING WHAT YOU MEAN: COMPREHENDING NATURAL LANGUAGE

LANGUAGE AS THE RESERVOIR OF KNOWLEDGE
THE INDISPENSABILITY OF "UNDERSTANDING"
NOAM CHOMSKY'S TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR
UNDERSTANDING VS. RECOGNITION
ILLUSIONS AND DELUSIONS
AT LAST--GETTING DOWN TO MEANING
LANGUAGE ON THE DISSECTING TABLE
EXPLORING SEMANTICS
IN CONCLUSION

15    LEARNING: THE INDISPENSABLE PREREQUISITE

WHAT TEACHERS DON'T HAVE TO TEACH
CREATING LINKS
LEARNING BY DISCOVERING
"CHUNKING" WITH SOAR
EDUCATION BY BRAIN SURGERY: EXPERT SYSTEMS
MCC AND THE CYC PROJECT

16    IN PURSUIT OF COMMON SENSE

"EVERYBODY KNOWS": THE UNSAID OBVIOUS
INDUCTION AND INFERENCE
AN ANALOGY IS LIKE A LENS: FOCUSING ATTENTION
METAPHOR: RECYCLED EXPERIENCE
REDISCOVERING "MIND"
MIND AS A CONSENSUS

17    CRITICS AND SKEPTICS

ALIENS APPROACHING
ENTER, THE PHILOSOPHERS: HUBERT DREYFUS
JOHN SEARLE'S CHINESE TURING TEST

18    GETTING BETTER CONNECTED

PARALLELISM AND NEURAL NETS
PARKINSON'S LAW OF COMPUTING
THE NEW CONNECTIONISM
PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING
EMERGENCE OF THE DUAL-MODE MIND

19    MOLECULES OF MIND

STATISTICAL EMERGENCE FROM THE WORLD OF THE SUBSYMBOLIC
THE HALFWAY LEVEL: "COPYCAT" AT INDIANA STATE
THERMODYNAMICS OF THINKING: BOLTZMANN MACHINES
GRUBBING ABOUT IN STATISTICS: DATA MINING
HOLOGRAPHIC MIND
EMULATING GENETICS: TOWARD PROGRAMS THAT WRITE THEMSELVES
QUANTUM MIND--THE ROOT OF ORIGINALITY?
THE PRICE OF VERSATILITY

20    SO WHERE DOES IT ALL LEAVE US?

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 
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