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December 9, 2008

Radioactivity and Transmutation

An Electrical Connection

In 1930, S. E. Rutherford, J. Chadwick, and C. Ellis, published a paper describing experiments on radiocative decay rates entitled "Radiations from Radioactive Substances," in which they concluded that, "The rate of transformation of an element has been found to be a constant under all conditions." (The situation gets slightly more complicated for decays resulting from capture of inner-shell electrons, or for beta-decays in strong ambient electromagnetic fields, since they are influenced by the electron wave functions, which can be affected by external pressure or fields.) The conventional view has remained that for practical purposes radioactive decays occur at a constant rate unaffected by the physical environment. Measurements of the half-lives of various elements have consistently yielded a certain disagreement, which is customarily taken to represent the spread of data points expected from repeated experiments, and is smoothed by statistical methods to produce the published averages.

However, the Summer, 2000, edition of 21st Century magazine reports on a paper entitled "Realization of Discrete States During Fluctuations in Macroscopic Processes," published in 1998 by the Russian biophysicist Professor Simon Shnoll and others, describing a 30-year research program that took a closer look at the finer distribution of the results and found them to display distinct patterns that could not be explained as random scatter. Moreover, the same patterns were found to occur at the same time in locations up to thousands of kilometers apart, and to vary in unison with cycles corresponding to a day, a lunar month, and a sidereal year (a year as measured by a rotation of the cosmos). See online at http://www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/articles/time.html. The only conclusion can be that some factor of a cosmic nature systematically influences processes across the Earth, previouly thought to be subject only to statistical variations. (Similar regularities were found in a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena.)

The news is of immediate interest to Electric Universe theorists, who question the classical model of a universe consisting of isolated bodies in a vacuum interacting only via gravity, and see it instead as a complex system of electrically active objects interconnected by circuits formed by cosmic currents flowing through the plasma that pervades space. Cyclic motion in a such dynamically structured environment can be expected to produce just the kind of periodic effects observed.

Now we have results from groups at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesandstalt in Germany showing decay-rate variations that not only correlate strongly with each other, but also with the distance between the Earth and the Sun. Among the implications discussed is the suggestion that discrepancies in published half-life measurements may be attributable in part to variations in solar activity during the course of the experiments, or to seasonal variations in fundamental constants. See "Evidence for Correlations Between Nuclear Decay Rates and Earth-SunDistance," Jere H. Jenkins et al, available at: http://arxiv.org/abs/0808.3283v1

Another tenet of the Electric model is that many of the surface features seen on Earth and the other bodies of the Solar System have been formed not by impacts, as mainstream planetary science focuses on exclusively, but by immense electrical discharges during major close encounters that no longer occur in the stable conditions prevailing today.

Ralph Juergens, one of the pioneer figures of Electric Universe theory, published an article in the journal Kronos, 3:1, Fall, 1997, entitled "Radiohalos & Earth History," which discusses the microscopic, concentric ring-like discolorations produced in some minerals around impurity traces of alpha-emitting radioactive elements and their decay products, for example the chain leading from uranium 238 to lead 206. Since emission energies are related to characteristic half-lives, the sizes of the rings enables the elements in the sequence to be identified, from which the time scale for the process can be inferred. However, tests performed by Robert V. Gentry at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from the early 1960s onward to determine the age of the Earth produced the anomalous results that in many cases, radionuclides appeared to have been created as recently as mere minutes before the rocks containing them solidified--completely at odds with the conventional account of heavy elements being synthesized in an earlier generation of stars and incorporated into objects like the Sun and its planetary system billions of years later. While creationists point to such findings as evidence for a young Earth, Juergens presents a case for the elements in question being not primordial, but the results of transmutations brought about in the course of Earth's history by cosmic-scale electrical discharges. Such mechanisms could also explain much of the chemistry observed elsewhere in the Solar System, for example the abundance of sulfur on Jupiter's moon Io, credibly transmuted from the oxygen in water ice but officially attributed to volcanoes. If the electrical interpretation of such data is correct, it raises questions about the entire system of conventionally accepted gelogical dating, which is something I've had doubts about for a long time. I believe that major upheavals have affected the Earth far more rapidly and more recently than can be accounted for by the processes of slow, gradual change that the textbooks describe.

As far as I know, the above article by Ralph Juergens isn't online. However, some of his earlier Kronos papers can be found at http://www.kronos-press.com/juergens/index.htm. (Also links to other Electric Universe sources that should keep those interested to learn more occupied for a while.)

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